Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is sometimes referred to as a metabolic disorder because it becomes a problem when we eat food. Diabetics have a problem with the production of insulin. Insulin is produced when a person eats some food, in particular, carbohydrate types of foods.
Carbohydrates get broken down by the body to form glucose that is absorbed into the bloodstream. In the bloodstream it can be transported to all the cells in the body and gives them energy. During this metabolic process the glucose levels in the blood reduce from a high level to a normal number.
Insulin is responsible for reducing glucose in the blood. For diabetics this cannot be done because they do not produce insulin or the body is resistant to naturally occurring insulin. This means they have to take medication or inject insulin to get over this problem. This article will discuss the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then list some of the common health problems caused by type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disorder. The body destroys the cells that produce insulin because it thinks they are harmful to the body. Thus no insulin is produced. Type 2 diabetes is often referred to as insulin resistance. The body produces insulin but for some reason the cells in the body do not react to it and become resistant. Another form of diabetes is gestational diabetes which starts during pregnancy and usually ends after the birth. It is similar to type 2 diabetes in that it is a resistance to insulin. With no cure for type 1 diabetes, it is generally managed through a balanced diet, exercise and injecting insulin. Type 2 is managed more through diet and regular exercise. There may be times when medication is used to treat type 2 to make the cells of the body more sensitive to insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Simply put, the cells in the body stop recognizing or processing insulin. Cells in this condition are believed to have lost the receptor that senses insulin. How this occurs is not completely clear however people that have large stomachs are thought to be most at risk to type 2. The fatty deposits around the waist produce adipokines that are believed to reduce the body's tolerance to insulin.
Resulting Health Issues
It is important to manage blood glucose levels. If they are high for long periods of time then the consistency of the blood affects many areas of the body that it flows to. In particular, it can score the inner walls of the arteries. This makes it more likely that LDL cholesterol that passes through the arteries with the blood will stick to the inner walls. This is the cause of atherosclerosis and can lead to blood clots and strokes when bits of LDL cholesterol break off the walls and obstruct the flow of blood.
Poor circulation is another problem brought about by type 2 diabetes. Poor circulation can lead to a number of problems including eye conditions. Diabetic retinopathy is one such example. The capillaries that bring blood to the eyes die because they stop getting blood. This forces the body to create more capillaries to support the eyes but they are weaker than the original capillaries and may burst or leak blood. this goes into the eye and can cloud the vision or even lead to blindness.
The extremities of the body, like the feet and hands are also affected by poor circulation. Blood does not get to them and this can lead to an increased susceptibility to infections and extra sensitivity to cuts and bruises.
The nervous system is also affected in people with type 2 diabetes. This means problems with feet, like cuts or infections are not felt and go unnoticed because people rarely look or see their feet.
Treating type 2 revolves around getting the right foods and partaking in regular exercise. Work out a proper, balanced diabetic diet with a dietitian. Do physical activities that you enjoy to begin with and then build up your level of exercise. Consult a doctor before starting a new regime.
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